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EMAC 2020 Annual Conference

A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Background Music on Customers of Tourism Services

Published: May 27, 2020


Maria-Angeliki Trompeta, Athens University of Economics and Business; Kalypso Karantinou, Athens University of Economics & Business; Christos Koritos, ALBA Graduate Business School - The American College of Greece; Tammo Bijmolt, University of Groningen


Background music; Tourism; Meta-analysis


Background music is the most studied atmospheric stimuli of service settings. However, this growing body of research has produced contradictory results that differ in terms of direction, strength and statistical significance. Previous attempts to synthesize this empirical evidence are narrative, have focused mainly on non-tourism settings, and/or have been limited to certain outcomes or aspects of music. The present meta-analysis of 55 studies and 228 effects aims to deal with these identified shortcomings. In particular, we contribute to the literature by quantitatively synthesizing available empirical evidence of the influence of five different musical aspects (presence, volume, tempo, congruence, and liking) on cognitive, affective and behavioral responses of tourism services customers. Hence, our findings offer tourism providers a better understanding of the impact of background music and help them in making better, evidence-based decisions about their musicscapes.