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EMAC 2023 Annual

Effectiveness of Public Transport Promotion Tickets - The example of the 9-Euro-Flatrate-Ticket in Germany

Published: May 24, 2023


Tatjana König, Saarland Business School htw saar; Andreas Krämer, University of Europe for Applied Sciences; Kristin Manthey, htw saar; Sarah Bohr, htw saar; Liesa Grund, htw saar (Saarland Business School htw)


The German 9-Euro (public transport (PT) flat-rate) ticket - sold more than 52 M times between June and August 2022 - served as an instrument to motivate sustainable mobility and to curb inflation. Two survey studies analyze the long-term effects of the promotional ticket. Based on a competing theories approach, study 1 (N>1,000) identifies a negative effect of satisfaction with the 9-Euro-Ticket on future PT usage intention and a positive effect on willing-to-pay for future flat-rate tickets. Multigroup analysis shows that the positive effect on WTP only exists for prior – not for new – PT users. Study 2 shows that conscientiousness and Green Self-Identity moderate the relationship between perceived environmental contribution of the ticket and future PT usage intention. The paper concludes with a critical evaluation of the recently decided subsequent 49-Euro-Ticket that primarily attracts prior PT users and therefore contributes to cannibalization rather than motivating car replacement.