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EMAC 2019 Annual Conference

Hurting Visual Attention but Enhancing Buying Intentions: Co-creation as a Paradox for Companies

Published: May 28, 2019


Wagner Ladeira, Unisinos; Vinícius Nardi, Unisinos University; Diego Costa Pinto, NOVA Information Management School; Márcia Herter, Universidade Europeia, Lisboa


co-creation; visual attention; eyetracking


Extant research suggests that co-creation is an important strategy used by companies to improve consumer outcomes. In two experimental studies using eye-tracking, this paper extends prior research by revealing a co-creation paradox: negative impact on consumers’ visual attention and positive effect on buying intentions. The findings also indicate that construal level moderates the influence of co-creation on visual attention and buying intentions. Managers may be able to overcome the co-creation paradox by activating consumers’ construal level, mitigating negative effects on visual attention and increasing buying intentions in concrete (vs. abstract) construal. Finally, the findings show that visual reaction time mediates the effects of co-creation and construal level on buying intentions. This research contributes to the literature revealing the not yet explored negative effects of co-creation on visual attention, the moderating role of construal level, and the underlying process of visual reaction time.