Search Conferences

Type in any word, words or author name. This searchs through the abstract title, keywords and abstract text and authors. You may search all conferences or just select one conference.

 All Conferences
 EMAC 2019 Annual Conference
 EMAC 2020 Annual Conference
 EMAC 2020 Regional Conference
 EMAC 2021 Annual Conference
 EMAC 2021 Regional Conference
 EMAC 2022 Annual
 EMAC 2022 Regional Conference

EMAC 2019 Annual Conference

Should Manufacturers Use Food Labels? The Case of Chocolate

Published: May 28, 2019


Verena Berger, ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences; Steffen Müller, ZHAW School of Management and Law; Roger Seiler, Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW)


Food Labels; Conjoint Analysis; Willingness-to-Pay


Food labels, such as organic labels or fair-trade labels, have proliferated in recent years. Although consumers know such food labels, they often do not know the underlying criteria. Prior research has shown that showing food labels on the packaging increases willingness-to-pay. But it has not investigated whether communicating the underlying criteria would be even better. We use chocolate as an example and show, based on an experiment and a Conjoint Analysis conducted in Switzerland (n=293) that willingness-to-pay is significantly lower for a chocolate that shows food labels than for a chocolate that shows the underlying criteria. We identify “no forced or child labor” and “no pesticides” as the most important underlying criteria. Willingness-to-pay for “no forced or child labor” can be as high as 2.25 CHF. Furthermore, we show that manufacturers can mainly attract two segments with that practice that make up 65 percent of the market.