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EMAC 2020 Annual Conference

An Investigation of International Franchisors’ Co-Creation Practices

Published: May 27, 2020


Nabil Ghantous, Qatar University; Ibrahim Alnawas, Qatar University


co-creation; franchising; international


This article investigates co-creation practices in international franchising by focusing on how franchisors participate in foreign franchisees’ value creation processes. 53 in-depth interviews with French franchisors and their foreign franchisees reveal a wide array of franchisor co-creation activities related to the co-set up and launch of the franchise abroad, co-training and knowledge dissemination, co-adaptation of the offering, and co-management of problems. Furthermore, they reveal seven co-creation styles along the three dimensions of activities’ initiation and control, as well as the intensity of interaction with foreign franchisees. Our findings offer service companies involved in international franchising a mapping of the domains and styles in which they could support their foreign franchisees’ value creation processes depending on their preferences, resources, and capabilities.