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EMAC 2022 Annual

How do Brands evolve? An Exploration of Brand Co-Creation Performances

Published: May 24, 2022


Lars Griebel, University of Bayreuth; Tim Ströbel, University of Bayreuth


Recent branding research adopts a multi-actor perspective, stating that brands are co-created through the performances of multiple actors. This study aims to explore the performances of different actors to better comprehend the dynamic nature of brands. In a single case study, the sports brand FC St. Pauli serves as research context. In the context of sports brands, the multiactor perspective becomes particularly evident - they therefore provide an exceptional context to examine the process of brand co-creation. Our research shows how brands evolve in a continuous process in which multiple actors perform seven distinct but interrelated brand co-creation performances. Five performances are derived from previous research, while two novel brand co-creation performances emerge: ‘directing brand strategy’ and ‘facilitating’ performances. Our research contributes to branding literature by refining the understanding of how brands evolve through the performances of multiple actors.