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EMAC 2023 Regional Conference

The Communication Strategies Employed by the Lebanese Forces During Their 2018-2022 Election Campaigns: An Analysis of Violence-Infused Discourse

Published: November 22, 2023


Hiba Madi, Saint Joseph University, Beirut


Lebanon has faced violence and political instability since the Lebanese Civil War, resulting in challenges related to social unrest and outbreaks of violence (O'ballance, 1998). Political parties frequently adopted the color red in their visual identity to symbolize unity and determination. However, the color red is also associated with political violence and bloodshed in Lebanon's history. This article investigates the communication strategies used by the Lebanese Forces during their 2018-2022 election campaigns, analyzing the use of violence-infused elements in their outdoor billboard advertising and exploring whether they seek to evoke war and fear memory structures to secure their legitimacy.