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EMAC 2022 Annual

A Taxonomy of Marketing Instruments in E-Commerce

Published: May 24, 2022


Benjamin Klink, University of St.Gallen; Thomas Rudolph, University of St. Gallen, Institute of Retail Management


The unprecedented diversity of marketing tools available in e-commerce increasingly poses fundamental challenges to marketing practitioners and researchers. New types of marketing tools have emerged at rapid pace. Yet, due to the lack of overview, harnessing the potential of these new marketing opportunities is challenging. Similarly, marketing research is handicapped by the lack of an integrative conceptual framework. In response to this void, we develop a up-to-date taxonomy of marketing instruments in e-commerce. Based on a comprehensive compendium of marketing tools currently available to e-commerce businesses, we empirically and intersubjectively develop an integrative framework using the open card sort method. We identify 10 marketing instrument categories covering 62 marketing tools. Our results provide a valuable resource for marketing strategy development and an evidence-based framework for future research.