Search Conferences

Type in any word, words or author name. This searchs through the abstract title, keywords and abstract text and authors. You may search all conferences or just select one conference.

 All Conferences
 EMAC 2019 Annual Conference
 EMAC 2020 Annual Conference
 EMAC 2020 Regional Conference
 EMAC 2021 Annual Conference
 EMAC 2021 Regional Conference
 EMAC 2022 Annual
 EMAC 2022 Regional Conference
 EMAC 2023 Annual
 EMAC 2023 Regional Conference

EMAC 2021 Regional Conference

Entrepreneurial Marketing Orientation of the Polish and Finnish small manufacturers functioning during the pandemic

Published: September 22, 2021


Izabela Kowalik, Warsaw School of Economics; Lidia Danik, Warsaw School of Economics; Agnieszka Ple?niak, Warsaw School of Economics


entrepreneurial marketing orientation; measurement invariance; exporting SMEs


The paper presents a quantitative study of 219 Polish, and 81 Finnish manufacturing SMEs, surveyed between Dec 2020-Feb 2021. It aims at determining their entrepreneurial marketing orientation (EMO) level, considering the functioning in an economic crisis period. Structural equation modelling was applied to find out about the relationships between variables. The results indicate that main concepts making up the EMO construct are understood in the same way in both countries. Moreover, Finnish firms represent a stronger entrepreneurial posture, than the Polish ones. Among the exporting firms, and those perceiving the current crisis as harmful, higher levels of proactiveness, opportunity focus and risk – taking in marketing were found. The findings provide a new focus on the Central European firms’ marketing as a dynamic capability, and they shed light on strategic orientations during crisis.


The research has been financed from the statutory funds of the Collegium of World Economy, Warsaw School of Economics.